Is Raw Sienna a "Shortcut"?
list of artists' pigments, evolving over centuries,
includes 530 entries, with some 44 achieving the
status of "standard" pigments. By what
criteria are colors added to the list?
(The second of three articles on this subject.)
By John Howard
color beyond the three pri-
found its place in the list-
(of 530 artists pigments)
direct response to a perceived
That perceived need,
often than not, was for
point closer to a desired
than that afforded
any existing pigment.
Is It, Then, a "Shortcut"
to Use Any of These 530 "Unnecessary"
the Oppenheim/Velázquez Pigment Combinations
The Pro Mix Color System palette consists of
two rows of colors. The top row consists of
twelve standard colors (from left): Ultramarine
Blue, Cerulean Blue, Viridian, Chromium Oxide
Green, Alizarin Crimson, Burnt Umber, Burnt
Sienna, Cadmium Orange, Venetian Red, Cadmium
Red Light, Yellow Ochre and Cadmium Yellow Light.
The lower row consists of (from left): Ivory
Black, Pro Mix Neutral 7, Neutral 5, Neutral
3, Dark 2, Dark I, Halftone 2, Halftone 1, Light
3, Light 2, Light 1 and White. The Pro Mix colors
are adjusted for hue, value and intensity by
mixing with other Pro Mix colors, or with colors
from the upper row of standard colors.
The ten Pro Mix colors are thus not "crutches"
or a "paint-by-number" shortcut. The
ten Pro Mix colors are, in fact, simple traditional
flesh color combinations used by all portrait
artists since the introduction of oil painting.
The artist modifies and adjusts each of the
Pro Mix colorsbased on observation of
the subjectin exactly the same way he
would a color from the standard palette. 78
such modifications are demonstrated in the Pro
Mix mixing chart, included with each boxed set
of the colors.
John Howard Sanden
Next time, I'll go further into color-mixing
procedure, describing how the Pro Mix colors
work in actual painting practice.